Sunday, August 2, 2020

The Research Attitude Required for Engineers Who are Involved in the Development of Data Warehouses for Epidemiological Analysis: Let us Provide Value, not Just a Labor Force

The Research Attitude Required for Engineers Who are Involved in the Development of Data Warehouses for Epidemiological Analysis: Let us Provide Value, not Just a Labor Force


Opinion

Recently, especially in Asian countries such as Korea, Taiwan, and Japan, databases that store treatment information used for insurance claims (insurance claims databases) have been set up at the national level. Some of these insurance claims databases have also been made publicly available for secondary purposes such as research and studies, and many research papers have already been published especially in the field of epidemiology. However, these databases were not constructed with the expectation of such secondary uses, so there are many cases where the data required for analysis is insufficient. The most well-known databases use the relational model that is based on predicate calculus and set theory [1]. The relational model is used for each country’s insurance claims database [2] and normalization is performed as is appropriate for data storage and update [3]. Therefore, data related to a patient is distributed across multiple tables. As a result, epidemiological research studies that use these databases (database research), require special knowledge concerning medical and statistical analysis as well as techniques for reconstructing database operations on the datasets for each patient while supplementing them with the necessary data for epidemiological research. In Japan, the database called the NDB (National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan) is run by the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare [4]. The authors are researchers in the engineering field who have been engaging in such research since 2015, when the trial operation of the NDB began. Since that time, there have been almost no other researchers from the engineering field who have participated in NDB, even inside academia and the government. This thesis analyzes the background and reasons for this situation, with the purpose of describing the role that researchers in the engineering field should play in database research.

Characteristics of Database Research

The main classifications of medical research are basic research in biological and medical fields, database research and clinical research. The comparison of database research and basic research is interesting and the two have different characteristics. Additionally, the research processes that require labor are different in both classifications. In general, for basic research, a large amount of labor is required for experimentation and data gathering, while for database research, little time is required for data gathering because data is reused. On the other hand, while database research or basic research, is often the type of research that validates hypotheses, exploratory data analysis in order to construct a hypothesis from the data is important [5]. Therefore, the data analysis (data handling) load, including the database operations mentioned above, is usually large. In other words, in basic research, labor is required mostly for the experimentation and data gathering processes, while in database research, labor is required mostly for data analysis.
However, a very important research process for database research is the construction of a hypothesis. So, if a researcher who presents a hypothesis and a researcher who performs the data analysis write a paper together, the former is often listed as the first author. The perception that only the construction of the hypothesis requires brain work has been inherited from basic research and is deeply rooted.

Characteristics of Researchers in Epidemiology Who Perform Database Research

In Japan in particular, researchers in epidemiology who have a medical license have a very high social status. They are also often involved in a wide range of activities including basic or database research and treatment making them very busy. There are only a few researchers who are specialists in database research. Yet the support of a researcher who is familiar with database technology is often required in the engineering field. In addition, research speed is emphasized, because researchers in epidemiology want to obtain research results quickly. When researchers in the engineering field who provide such support are not actively incorporated into the epidemiological research they automatically become “helpers” and merely provide labor.
In the database research projects, I have been involved in so far, there were some researchers in epidemiology who had medical licenses and were well versed in programming techniques and database technology. However, they were only able to solve their research problems independently. With regard to the know-how that has been received from these researchers in the research process thus far, source code has been given, but it could only be used under limited conditions and was not user friendly. Based on a little imagination, the reason for this is simple. These researchers may have good skills such as programming, but such skills are not their regular job, and they were satisfied just to display their multiple talents, such as in engineering technology. They knew that the development of generic systems was not their role. In this sense, having good skills does not necessarily result in developing an excellent system.

The Role that Researchers in the Engineering Field Should Play in Database Research

In the basic research fields of medicine and biology, the development of experimental methods and experimental equipment for the purpose of verifying hypotheses effectively is considered important. The inventors of these experimental methods and equipment are often researchers and developers that have doctorate degrees in their fields. This concept should also apply to database research. Researchers in the engineering field who are involved with database research should come up with their own research questions and gain a lot of experience in epidemiological research. This is because only through understanding epidemiological research, can one identify research problems for database research. It would also be ideal for researchers in epidemiology, including clinicians, to develop systems such as data warehouses that enable them to conduct research independently.

Conclusion


This thesis has discussed the problem of database research and the role that researchers in the engineering field should play in it. In database research, as know-how, the creation of source code and manuals is useful to a certain degree, but not decisive in effectiveness. In order to use them, a certain amount of basic knowledge and time are required, so it is not uncommon for them to barely be used. Accordingly, it is appropriate to develop systems (software) with excellent interfaces that can be used even by beginners without requiring basic knowledge and time. It is difficult to develop a system that can cover all databases, but even just developing a system limited to the use of one database would be of immense value. In database research, from the point of view of a researcher in epidemiology, a researcher in the engineering field may often be seen as a laborer in charge of data handling. The most important thing for a researcher in the engineering field is to have a research attitude for inventing a system that will be useful someday, while providing labor.
The Factor Assay of Indicators of Physical and Functional Preparation of Basketball Players 18-25 Years Old-https://biomedres01.blogspot.com/2020/07/the-factor-assay-of-indicators-of.html

More BJSTR Articles : https://biomedres01.blogspot.com

Friday, July 31, 2020

The Factor Assay of Indicators of Physical and Functional Preparation of Basketball Players 18-25 Years Old

The Factor Assay of Indicators of Physical and Functional Preparation of Basketball Players 18-25 Years Old


Introduction

Suspension Coaching (TRX®) is considering as the best option for both beginners and professional athletes because it’s easy to operate and manage. For example, Nicholas Ratamess describes the body weight exercises that are highly popular and the suspension coaching or total body weight resistance exercise (TRX®), that is used in school- and community-based programs to track progress, develop personalized programs, provide motivation, and assess the effectiveness of a fitness program Ratamess et al. [3]. In addition, working with elderly participants, many of whom with multiple chronic injuries, and required supervision to create modification that could help them maintain and improve performance without aggravating any preexisting conditions, Suspension Coaching was introduced into their regular coaching routines Gaedtke et al. [4]. Further, the research was conducted, using TRX®, among 36 health but untrained men. Scientists were focused on exercises that could improve strength, power, speed and jumping ability. However, after the study was completed, the scientists determined there was no significant improvement Maté-Muñoz et al. [5].
In effect, very few scientists have compared the effects of balance on performance measures in coaching programs performed under both unstable and stable conditions Sparkes et al. [6]. Thus, exploring results of wrestlers 10-12 years old suggest that TRX® functional loops can be used in the coaching program, as this tool increases: strength, speed-strength performance muscles in the arms and legs. However, muscle growth, as indicated, is insignificant that is valuable for wrestlers who limited weight category Miroshnikov et al. [7]. During the research on the effectiveness of coaching for qualified handball players, changes were identified and aerobic physical performance of athletes for two leading microcycles with TRX® assistance to conduct four major exercises for the lower body (Humstring Runner, Side Lunge, Overhead Squats). This has led to positive dynamic Tyshchenko et al. [8]. However, in the study of a particular sport, such as basketball, scientists were focused on finding out if three weeks of TRX® suspension coaching were enough to enhance static balance in junior basketball players. Those three weeks of TRX® coaching seemed to be insufficient for modifications to occur in the static balance of junior players Iuliana et al. [9].
It is necessary to generate explosive muscular forces very rapidly to accelerate, change directions, and then reaccelerate over relatively short distances in Team Spots Dao CT et al. [2]. Therefore, maximal velocity is likely a greater predictor of success, and the ability to change velocity over short distances in multiple directions based on game- specific stimuli is prevailing Dawes et al. [10]. Because of that, athletes must apply greater muscular forces into the ground to overcome the oppositional forces of gravity to produce velocity Kovacs [11]. In addition, the assay of scientific methodic literature defied that there is a deficit of sport science and movement-specific functional resistance coaching data on strength and conditioning for basketball players at every level. Therefore, it requires a deep assay of every action would be taken and influenced on basketball. Recently, experts in various sports widely used factor assay technique that reveals the complex dominant components Tishchenko [12]. This causes the athletic performance, determines the nature of the relationship between the indicators. Also it allows determine the contribution of individual factors to the overall result. Relevant is the definition of the factor structure of preparedness in basketball, which is an extremely important task. However, the literature wasn’t paying enough attention to this question. Establishing main components for preparedness would greatly enhance the effectiveness of their coaching and competitive activity.

Materials & Methods

Participants:

The study involved 26 basketball players between the ages of 18 to 25 years old team of Vietnam.

Goals and Procedures:

The goal of this study was to use TRX® to determine the effect on the functional readiness for basketball players. To solve this goal, we have the following tasks:
i. Assess the level of physical and aerobic performance in a coaching process for basketball players 18-25 years old.
ii. Analyse the dynamics of physical condition and aerobic capacity of basketball player’s primary and experimental groups.
iii. Collocate the leading factors of functional readiness for basketball players.
Overall Design: The coaching in both groups was within the base stabilizing mesocycle specially preparatory phase. The control group of 13 athletes was involved in accordance to the traditional coaching program. Conventional exercises that meet the stated objectives of each part were used. The experimental group of 13 engaged involving specially designed complex exercises using TRX® equipment. Each exercise was performed 45 seconds, break-15 seconds, every round- by 2 sets. The break between sets -1 minute. The total duration of one set 7 minutes. The total duration of the coaching 45 minutes. The study was undertaken in Vietnam after approval by the Institutional Research Ethics Committee at HoChiMinh City National University. Participation was voluntary; participants received no incentives. They were provided with information about the aims, objectives and methods of the study before the start of monitoring.
Data was anonymous and confidential, and data protection was observed at all the time. Each basketball player gave voluntary informed consent for the inclusion in the study. Measuring methods. Estimated overall physical performance using the method Astranddetermined level of overall physical performance, aerobic power and capacity. In the beginning and at the end of the preparatory and competitive macrocycle periods of basketball players, both groups were assessed by level of physical capacity and aerobic performance using submaximal test PWC170. Exact and relative values were calculated PWC170 (aPWC170,kgm/min; rPWC170, kgm/min/ kg) and maximal oxygen consumption (аMOC, l/min; rMOC, l/min/ kg), coefficient of efficiency of blood supply (CEBS), the power index (PI), index hypoxia (IH). Statistical assay. Generalization of the studied charact eristics was assessed by mean arithmetic value, standard deviation, error of mean arithmetic and factor an analysis. Confidence of differences between mean values was stated by Student’s t-criterion. Assessment of statistical hypothesizes based on 5% significance level. For statistical processing of data, we used licensed program (SPSS 20.0).

Results


Preliminary physical fitness testing of basketball players who participated in the study made it possible to establish the following. As seen from the results in early coaching in preliminary and experimental groups were characterized by substantially equal values and overall physical performance aerobic productivity (Table 1). Levels aPWC170, rPWC170, aMOC, and rMOC matched low value. In general, the pre-test results determined the insufficient level of physical fitness of the surveyed groups (Table 1). The conclusive evidence of the above results was the data relative changes in the study of physical performance and aerobic productivity for basketball players in the control and experimental groups. In the assay of the functional state of the body on the subject to maintain the overall physical performance, it can be stated that for the period of rest not the adaptive stereotypes embodied for the past seasons have been lost. Therefore, with an average energy at the beginning of the season, the leading role of aerobic mechanisms in central and vice versa could be saved, to ensure the efficiency of the anaerobic organism in point guards laid down as a result of the coaching process, as well as according to their physiological characteristics. As a matter of fact, the implementation of the coaching program leads to a significant increase in performance and efficiency of power supply arrangements for the players. It should be noted for preservation of specific stereotype for all players’ positions in basketball.
Note: BPP-the beginning of the preparatory period; EPP-the end of the preparation period; BCP – the beginning of the competition period; ECP – the end of the competition period.
Further, to summarize the last phase of the survey, the attention should be paid about the rising level of fatigue and the partial depletion of energy systems. It should be emphasized that this decline is not dramatic and disastrous nature of all the indicators of power supply is not reduced to a level that allows speak of exhaustion and inability to maintain physical condition of basketball players. The results obtained in all phases made it possible to determine the orientation of quality changes in the studied parameters during the basketball season, the quantitative characteristics and the possibility of correction in coaching and competitive process for greater optimization and an increase in the functional state of the organism. This tendency is to increase the total of all indicators of physical performance and energy mechanisms including the competitive level, maintaining the level of these indicators in the first half of the season and reduce them to the background processes, developing due to fatigue at the end of the season.
Notes: BPP- The beginning of the preparatory period; EPPthe end of the preparation period; BCP – the beginning of the competition period; ECP-the end of the competition period.
Therefore, participants of the experimental group during the study were characterized by a significantly higher magnitude aPWC170 gain values, rPWC170, aMOC and rMOC, basketball players than the control group (Table 1). According to the algorithm method of prime component, the accuracy of survey results is achieved if the percentage of the sample is substantially between interconnected elements is not less than 60% of the total variance. When analyzing the factorial study of functional readiness for basketball players, the structure value of mentioned values in all groups exceeds the desired range, which was 78%. One of the key points of our study was to determine the relationship between the level of functional manifestations of athletes and the effectiveness of physical fitness using TRX®. The (Table 2) evidenced how interconnected TRX® certain exercises between each other, and the level of manifestation for functional readiness. Factor assay procedure allowed to generate the system load factor and determine the three factors of physical fitness, eigenvalues were higher than one (Table 2). In general, the composition factor (whose contribution to the total dispersion made 16.34 %) entered parameters which characterize TRX® exercise for the upper body: Roll up r = 0.868; Table Row r = 0.903; TRX® Twist r = 0.882.
The second factor (20.37 %) clustered index, which reflected the TRX® exercises for the thighs and buttocks: TRX® Frog r = 0.916; Sprinter Start r = 0.778; Wide Jump r = 0.747. The third factor (41.26 %) was above the threshold load variables that reflect TRX® exercise for the upper and lower body: Burpee r = 0.925; Push up +Tuck Knee r = 0.865; Mountain Climber r = 0.875. Subsequent graphic assay of the influence factors on the selected parameters Ai ... Zi possible to determine it in the form of a bipartite graph (chromatic number is 2), since a plurality of vertices can be broken into two parts (A) and (Z), so that neither one vertex in (A) is not connected with vertices (A) and no vertex in (Z) with vertices (Z) (the subset of vertices (A) and (Z) called lobes bipartite graph G). This clearly shows the effect of each factor on the performance аPWC170, аMOC, CEBS, PI, IH (Figure 1). The values of z1, z2 and z4 are determined by the combined effect of the factors A2 and A3 and the indexes z3 and z5 - the combined effect of A1 and A3. The graph of the optimization based on the weights of the vertex allows us to determine that the graph contains an Eulerian circuit: A3 - z1 - A2 - z2 - A3 - z5 - A1 - z3 - A3 - z4 - A2. (Figure 2). That confirms that the graph is connected (Euler’s cycle if and only if the graph is connected) and, accordingly - the impact of the factors determined in the parameters studied. Optimized G graphing (VFX, E) allows to determine the peak of the graph vertices kA3 = 4, confirming the effect of A3 (TRX® exercise for the upper and lower) (Figure 2).

Discussion

A number of experts in the field of theory and methodology of sports coaching indicate that the modern technology of preparation of top-class athletes is based on the results of scientific research and has scientific and methodological platform Ratamess et al. [3,2]. Various scientists have developed biomechanical and psychopedagogical bases of an activity for athletes, as well as key aspects of their coaching: technical, physical, psychological and theoretical Kovacs et al. [11,2]. Thus, numerous studies suggest that a scientific approach to the coaching qualified athletes capable of providing high achievements Dao CT et al. [2]. Basketball is a dynamic and explosive sport, full of intensity and contacts Valeria T et al. [14]. That’s the reason why a lot of basketball players can perform elements of the game, such as dunking the ball or quick movements through defenders and dribble to the net effortlessly. All those aspects take the huge influence on the athlete’s body. With the use of Suspension Coaching exercises the player can simulate the way his body moves on the court, making him more able to handle challenges of practices and matches. By the variety of coaching and uneven load of work on the body, the TRX® Trainer better develops core strength and stability element to the required moves which can help the basketball players to be stronger and have better balance on the court Valeria T et al. [14]. In recent years, due to the increase of the struggle on the international arena of Vietnamese basketball teams, the issue of coaching competitive basketball players has gained a special meaning. Moreover, in the past several Olympic cycles formed the trend has been focused on increasing the system of complexity of technical and tactical action. To solve the problem and to achieve better results, the question has been awakened to use the advanced technology. In this regard, it is particularly important and urgent to train and prepare highly qualified basketball players. In particular, Vietnamese basketball is an urgent requirement to implement and implement higher complexity factors and their impact on competitive outcomes. They do not exist or cannot be included in the preparation of the structure depending on the coaching personnel.
The coach’s main purpose of the practice is to concentrate on the players physical abilities developing their speed, strength and explosive power to make sure they have a good balance and able to jump high, etc. The biggest importance to joint stability is not necessarily strength or endurance but motor control. Instability resistance exercises promote co-contractions, increasing joint stability Behm et al. [13]. The idea is to involve the whole athlete’s body during the practice, and how capable it is to challenge the ball and work under the net on the basketball court. TRX® allows the coach to create coaching programs for the players using progressing and regressing movements for strength, conditioning, stretching, rehabilitation, and to give additional bust to their bodies needed on scheduled practices or before competitions Valeria T et al. [1].
Suspension bodyweight coaching has many advantages. Moreover, many benefits it has brought to sports performance particularly in basketball. Jungle Gym, TRX®, Rotational Bodyweight Trainer from CrossCore180® helped bring this form of coaching to the forefront of the sports performance and fitness industries (Valeria. T et al, 2018). The latter of which has an added component of rotation with a greater equalization.
These are all great options that may increase an athlete’s strength through a full range of motion, while utilizing a fully portable unit for convenience Hess et al. [14]. Using TRX® Coaching programs would benefit basketball players in order to achieve better balance and coordination on the both sides of the hardwood. The programs could vary from Beginner to Advance depending on the athletes’ physical condition. TRX® assists the athletes to develop and perform basketball movements, concentrate on specific muscles and improve coaching outcomes. Based on these facts, several exercises TRX® are proposed that could be valuable as a part of the coaching program designed to increase preparedness of basketball players 18-25 years old.

Conclusion

The results of the study have clearly demonstrated that the introduction of training for basketball players with the TRX® function rings has contributed to a significant increase in overall fitness levels and ability to foster Body gas. Our research study element allows us to determine the presence of internal relationships between the indicators of the Super League’s functional and physical preparation for the Vietnamese team. Obviously, the use of TRX® can be considered a factor to increase the efficiency of the training process. The main advantage - is to work with its own weight, without additional complications that allow the athlete to remove the vertical load. In the study, dynamics allows for accurate use, to make changes at all stages of the training process as a whole team and as individual players, who tend to higher.
The Research Attitude Required for Engineers Who are Involved in the Development of Data Warehouses for Epidemiological Analysis: Let us Provide Value, not Just a Labor Force-https://biomedres01.blogspot.com/2020/07/the-research-attitude-required-for.html

More BJSTR Articles : https://biomedres01.blogspot.com

Thursday, July 30, 2020

The Research Attitude Required for Engineers Who are Involved in the Development of Data Warehouses for Epidemiological Analysis: Let us Provide Value, not Just a Labor Force

The Research Attitude Required for Engineers Who are Involved in the Development of Data Warehouses for Epidemiological Analysis: Let us Provide Value, not Just a Labor Force


Opinion

Recently, especially in Asian countries such as Korea, Taiwan, and Japan, databases that store treatment information used for insurance claims (insurance claims databases) have been set up at the national level. Some of these insurance claims databases have also been made publicly available for secondary purposes such as research and studies, and many research papers have already been published especially in the field of epidemiology. However, these databases were not constructed with the expectation of such secondary uses, so there are many cases where the data required for analysis is insufficient. The most well-known databases use the relational model that is based on predicate calculus and set theory [1]. The relational model is used for each country’s insurance claims database [2] and normalization is performed as is appropriate for data storage and update [3]. Therefore, data related to a patient is distributed across multiple tables. As a result, epidemiological research studies that use these databases (database research), require special knowledge concerning medical and statistical analysis as well as techniques for reconstructing database operations on the datasets for each patient while supplementing them with the necessary data for epidemiological research. In Japan, the database called the NDB (National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan) is run by the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare [4]. The authors are researchers in the engineering field who have been engaging in such research since 2015, when the trial operation of the NDB began. Since that time, there have been almost no other researchers from the engineering field who have participated in NDB, even inside academia and the government. This thesis analyzes the background and reasons for this situation, with the purpose of describing the role that researchers in the engineering field should play in database research.

Characteristics of Database Research

The main classifications of medical research are basic research in biological and medical fields, database research and clinical research. The comparison of database research and basic research is interesting and the two have different characteristics. Additionally, the research processes that require labor are different in both classifications. In general, for basic research, a large amount of labor is required for experimentation and data gathering, while for database research, little time is required for data gathering because data is reused. On the other hand, while database research or basic research, is often the type of research that validates hypotheses, exploratory data analysis in order to construct a hypothesis from the data is important [5]. Therefore, the data analysis (data handling) load, including the database operations mentioned above, is usually large. In other words, in basic research, labor is required mostly for the experimentation and data gathering processes, while in database research, labor is required mostly for data analysis.
However, a very important research process for database research is the construction of a hypothesis. So, if a researcher who presents a hypothesis and a researcher who performs the data analysis write a paper together, the former is often listed as the first author. The perception that only the construction of the hypothesis requires brain work has been inherited from basic research and is deeply rooted.

Characteristics of Researchers in Epidemiology Who Perform Database Research

In Japan in particular, researchers in epidemiology who have a medical license have a very high social status. They are also often involved in a wide range of activities including basic or database research and treatment making them very busy. There are only a few researchers who are specialists in database research. Yet the support of a researcher who is familiar with database technology is often required in the engineering field. In addition, research speed is emphasized, because researchers in epidemiology want to obtain research results quickly. When researchers in the engineering field who provide such support are not actively incorporated into the epidemiological research they automatically become “helpers” and merely provide labor.
In the database research projects, I have been involved in so far, there were some researchers in epidemiology who had medical licenses and were well versed in programming techniques and database technology. However, they were only able to solve their research problems independently. With regard to the know-how that has been received from these researchers in the research process thus far, source code has been given, but it could only be used under limited conditions and was not user friendly. Based on a little imagination, the reason for this is simple. These researchers may have good skills such as programming, but such skills are not their regular job, and they were satisfied just to display their multiple talents, such as in engineering technology. They knew that the development of generic systems was not their role. In this sense, having good skills does not necessarily result in developing an excellent system.

The Role that Researchers in the Engineering Field Should Play in Database Research

In the basic research fields of medicine and biology, the development of experimental methods and experimental equipment for the purpose of verifying hypotheses effectively is considered important. The inventors of these experimental methods and equipment are often researchers and developers that have doctorate degrees in their fields. This concept should also apply to database research. Researchers in the engineering field who are involved with database research should come up with their own research questions and gain a lot of experience in epidemiological research. This is because only through understanding epidemiological research, can one identify research problems for database research. It would also be ideal for researchers in epidemiology, including clinicians, to develop systems such as data warehouses that enable them to conduct research independently.

Conclusion


This thesis has discussed the problem of database research and the role that researchers in the engineering field should play in it. In database research, as know-how, the creation of source code and manuals is useful to a certain degree, but not decisive in effectiveness. In order to use them, a certain amount of basic knowledge and time are required, so it is not uncommon for them to barely be used. Accordingly, it is appropriate to develop systems (software) with excellent interfaces that can be used even by beginners without requiring basic knowledge and time. It is difficult to develop a system that can cover all databases, but even just developing a system limited to the use of one database would be of immense value. In database research, from the point of view of a researcher in epidemiology, a researcher in the engineering field may often be seen as a laborer in charge of data handling. The most important thing for a researcher in the engineering field is to have a research attitude for inventing a system that will be useful someday, while providing labor.
Case Report: Hemoptysis as a Presentation of Aortic Dissection-https://biomedres01.blogspot.com/2020/07/case-report-hemoptysis-as-presentation.html

More BJSTR Articles : https://biomedres01.blogspot.com

Wednesday, July 29, 2020

Case Report: Hemoptysis as a Presentation of Aortic Dissection

Case Report: Hemoptysis as a Presentation of Aortic Dissection


Introduction

Hemoptysis is the expectoration of blood originating from the lower respiratory tract, from a source below the glottis. It is a common alarming symptom for patients and pulmonologists. The most common causes of hemoptysis are bronchiectasis, pulmonary tuberculosis, necrotizing pneumonia, abscesses, bronchogenic carcinoma, bronchitis, carcinoid or hemoptysis of unknown etiology. A rare causes of hemoptysis are pulmonary-renal syndrome, congenital anomalies, pulmonary embolism and pulmonary infarction [1-4]. Other causes are coagulation disorders, heart failure, aortic aneurysm and certain medications. Aortic dissection describes the condition when a separation has occurred in aortic wall intima, causing blood flow into a new false channel composed of the inner and outer layers of the media. Dissection most commonly occurs with a discrete intimal tear, but can occur without one [6]. The most common symptoms are shortness of breath, loss of consciousness, sudden severe upper back or chest pain often described as a “tearing” sensation from the neck down the back. The early diagnosis of aortic dissection improves treatment and outcome [7].

Case Report

A 81-year-old female was admitted to the emergency department (ED) of general hospital due to expectoration of nonsignificant amount of fresh blood a day prior to the admission. She also complained about increasing cough intensity and excessive sweating. In addition she reported the diffuse chest pain and interscapular back pain duration of 14 days. The patient associated the pain with a trauma two weeks ago when she fell of the bed facing down and hit the chest. Past medical history included arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease with one stent implantation a year ago, rheumatoid arthritis, dyslipidemia, epilepsy and implantation of total endoprosthesis of one knee and hip. Otherwise, she is treated abroad so she was not able to submit any earlier medical documentation. Current medications included candesartan (8mg twice daily), pantoprazole (20mg once daily), methotrexate (7.5mg per week), prednisolone (2mg and 1mg alternately), adalimumab (40mg every two weeks subcutaneously), lamotriginum (25mg twice daily) furosemide with potassium citrate (40mg and one tablet every other day, respectively), acetylsalicylic acid (100mg once daily), and for the last week she used antibiotic and antitussive drug with a poor response. On presentation she was conscious, well-oriented in all directions, afebrile, with restricted mobility due to the trauma 14 days ago. She was tachycardic with heart rate 110 beats/minute, and had systolic murmur all over precordium, intensity III-IV.
Auscultation of the lungs revealed rare bilateral basal crackles. The blood pressure was 180/90mmHg, respiratory rate was 13 breaths/minute and oxygen saturation was 93% on room air. Abdominal exam was unremarkable while there was a mild perimaleroral edema on both legs. Initial laboratory evaluation showed mild normocytic anemia (hemoglobin 105g/L), elevated white blood cells (14.7 x 109/L), neutrophils (12 x 109/L), C-reactive protein (283.7mg/L), and mildly elevated cardiac troponin T (22.63ng/L). Other laboratory test were unremarkable. ECG showed sinus rhythm with heart frequency 110 beats/minute and incomplete right bundle branch block. Other ECG parameters were within limits. The chest radiograph demonstrated heart enlargement with hypertrophic configuration and aortic calcifications while on the lungs there was a mild left laterobasal pleural effusion. She was admitted to the Department of Pulmonology where she was treated with fluoroquinolone antibiotics and symptomatic therapy. Next morning the patient complained about very intensive interscapular back pain with progression to the left shoulder. During the night she had two attacks of hemoptysis (about 10ml). She also reported meteorism and constipation for the last five days which is not usual for her.

On examination she was tachypnoic, excessive sweated, afebrile, paled. Blood pressure was high (180/90mmHg), respiratory rate was 25 breaths per minute, oxygen saturation was 93% on room air. Auscultation of lungs revealed reduced breath sounds at the left basal parts. ECG showed sinus tachycardia with heart rate 112 beats per minute and incomplete right bundle branch. Multiline CT pulmonary angiography was performed and excluded pulmonary embolism but revealed thoracic aortic aneurysm beneath the origin of the left subclavian artery. Dimensions in the middle part of thoracic aorta were 44x51mm. According to classification criteria it was Standford B, De Bakey III. The thick thrombus, 15mm width, was placed around entire D aneurysmal circumference and had a few ulcerations with the biggest one 65mm beneath the orifice of the left subclavian artery, placed dorsal and parasagittal with neck width 19x11 mm and total diameter 24x17mm. Also, it was seen an in homogenous structure with hyperdense areas inside the thrombus in an aneurysm which primarily shows dissecting aneurysm with intermittent and probably recent bleeding in the thrombus. The aneurysm ends intrathoracic on the level of the lower left pulmonary vein and according to the outer line of the aortic arch the length of the aneurysm is 11,7cm. Also there were compressive atelectasis Para mediastinal in the parenchyma of the left lung, probably as a consequence of the compressive effect of the aneurysm. The patient was immediately admitted to the Intensive Care Unit due to monitoring vital parameters. ACE inhibitors and beta blockers were administered because of the prevention of attacks of high blood pressure. Opioid analgesic therapy was unsuccessful, moreover the patient reported “tearing” pain with progression to the left shoulder and the abdomen with the distension of the abdomen. Also she became febrile (38 ºC) with hemoptysis still present. According to her physical status and CT analysis she was urgently transferred to the Special hospital for cardiovascular surgery where an endovascular stent graft was successfully implanted using Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair (TEVAR) procedure.

Extraction and Analysis of Bioactive Compounds from Dipsacus Fullonum and Galium Verum for Lyme Borreliosis Treatment-https://biomedres01.blogspot.com/2020/07/extraction-and-analysis-of-bioactive.html

More BJSTR Articles : https://biomedres01.blogspot.com

Monday, July 27, 2020

Extraction and Analysis of Bioactive Compounds from Dipsacus Fullonum and Galium Verum for Lyme Borreliosis Treatment

Extraction and Analysis of Bioactive Compounds from Dipsacus Fullonum and Galium Verum for Lyme Borreliosis Treatment


Introduction

Lyme borreliosis, although new, is the most common zoonotic disease in Europe, with an estimated 650 000 – 850 000 cases total and a higher incidence rate in Central Europe [1]. Treatment with antibiotics is not always effective [2] therefore, it seems logical to turn to medicinal plants for new treatment options. Liebold et al. showed that lipophilic extract from Dipsacus sylvesteris has activity against Borrelia burgdorferi [3]. Dipsacus fullonum has been used as a case study to show a promising herb that simply has no research on whether it helps people with Lyme borreliosis or any tick-borne infection [4]. Several herbal lymphatics, including Galium verum, can also be used for treatment [5]. Iridoids and polyphenols are present in many medicinal plants and their strong anti-inflammatory effects have been proven [6].
Extraction is the crucial first step in the analysis of medicinal plants. It is necessary to extract these desired chemical components from plants for further separation and characterization. For extraction, different methods were used. Mazina et al. successfully used 80% methanol and ultrasonic bath for the extraction of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants [7]. The aim of the study was to compare the different extraction methods, determine the most suitable for the extraction of bioactive compounds, and identify the major constituents.

Materials & Methods

Extraction Procedure: 1 g of dried plant was treated with 10 ml of 80% (v/v) methanol or 70% (v/v) ethanol and sonicated for 30 min at 40 °C. For Hot Water Extraction (HWE) – 10 mL of boiling water was added to 1 g of plant material and sonicated for 30 min at 80 °C. Pressurized Hot Water Extraction (PHWE) was carried out using 100 mL autoclave, produced by NWA analytics Meßgeräte GmbH. 6 g of dried material and 60 mL of water were loaded into the reactor. Extraction was carried out for 30 min at 80 bar and 100 °C. All obtained extracts were centrifuged for 15 min at 4000 rpm and the supernatant was diluted in accordance with needs.

Results and Discussion

The efficiency of the extraction methods was evaluated by quantitative analysis of four phenolic compounds – chlorogenic acid, rutin, protocatechuic acid and caffeic acid. The obtained results did not clearly favor one method. HWE and PHWE provided the most effective extraction of chlorogenic acid (6.9± 0.3 mg/g and 6.7±0.3 mg/g respectively) from Galium verum. At the same time, the highest yield of this acid in Dipsacus fullonum was obtained with methanolic and ethanolic extractions (8.2±0.3 mg/g and 8.1±0.3 mg/g respectively). Protocatechuic and caffeic acids were detected only in Dipsacus samples and there are no notable differences in extraction yields between the extraction methods (except PHWE). Rutin was found only in Galium samples and the highest content of this compound was obtained with PHWE (4.0±0.1 mg/g) and methanol extraction (3.6±0.1 mg/g).

HPLC-DAD-MS was used for the characterization of the phenolic profiles in different extracts of Dipsacus fullonum and Galium verum. The identification of the compounds was done by comparison of obtained mass spectra, retention time as well as the UV spectra with standards. In the absence of standards, identification of the compounds was carried out by careful interpretation of MS-MS data and exact measurement of precursor and fragment ions. As the chromatographic analysis shows, all extracts of the different species had a high phenolic content. Six major phenolic compounds were present in the Dipsacuss samples (predominantly flavone glucosides). Additionally, a significant amount of iridoids were also detected. In GGalium samples, fourteen major compounds, including quinic acid derivatives, flavonol glucosides, and iridoid glucosides, were identified. Some of the compounds were identified for the first time. The full list of identified compounds is given in Table 1.

Conclusion

HPLC-DAD-MS is a powerful and accurate method for the separation, identification and quantification of bioactive compounds in different plants. All extraction methods are suitable for the efficient extraction of phenolic and iridoic compounds from different plant matrices. Considering that pressurized hot water and hot water extractions belong to environmentally friendly/ benign extraction methods, this type of sample treatment could be preferable.
In Vitro Tensile Properties, Hydrolytic and Oxidative Permeability of the Biomedical Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) / Organohectorite Nanocomposites-https://biomedres01.blogspot.com/2020/07/in-vitro-tensile-properties-hydrolytic.html

More BJSTR Articles : https://biomedres01.blogspot.com

The Research Attitude Required for Engineers Who are Involved in the Development of Data Warehouses for Epidemiological Analysis: Let us Provide Value, not Just a Labor Force

The Research Attitude Required for Engineers Who are Involved in the Development of Data Warehouses for Epidemiological Analysis: Let us P...